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31 2009 . N 879


,

 

6 " " :

, .

 

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31 2009 . N 879

 


,

 

I.

 

1. , , .

2. (), .

3. :

"" - , , ;

" " - , ;

" " - , ;

" " - , , , , 1;

" " - , ;

" ()" - , ;

" " - , ;

" " - ();

" " - , ;

" " - , ;

" " - ();

" " - , , .

 

II. , ,

 

4. , .

5. () N 1.

6. . .

N 2.

7. N 3. N 4.

 

III.

 

8. , , .

, N 5.

9. , ( - ).

10. (, , , , , , ), , - , - ( ) ( ) .

, , .

11. , .

 

IV.

 

12. (°), ('), ("). 2 - .

13. . .

14. ( ). , , , . .

, , .

15. . .

16. , , .

17. , , .

18. , , ("·"). "x".

, , .

19. . , ( ).

, , , .

20. , .

21. , 2 , ( , - ).

22. (°), ('), ("), (%) () .

23. , , .

24. , , .

 

 

 

 

 

N 1

,

 

()

 

----------------------T----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
          ¦                                    
              +-------------T---------------------------T----------------------------------------------
                      ¦ ¦                ¦                 
                      ¦             +----------------T----------+
                      ¦             ¦   ¦   ¦
----------------------+-------------+----------------+----------+----------------------------------------------
 1.                                m                    -  ,   
                                                                    
                                                                 1/299 792 458  (XVII 
                                                                      (), 1983
                                                                 ,  1)

 2.                           kg                  -  ,  
                                                                    (I ,
                                                                 1889 ,  III , 1901 )

 3.                             s                    - ,  9 192 631 770  
                                                                  ,  
                                                                     
                                                                   -133 (XIII , 1967
                                                                 ,  1)

 4.  ,                 A                    -   , 
                                                   
                                                                 
                                                                     
                                                                 ,    
                                                                  1    ,  
                                                                      1 
                                                                                                 -7
                                                                  ,  2·10   
                                                                 (    , 1946 ,
                                                                  2,  IX , 1948 )

 5.                          mol                -   ,
                                                             ,
                                                                     -12
                                                                  0,012 .   
                                                                    
                                                                     ,
                                                                 , ,   
                                                                    
                                                                  (XIV , 1971 ,  3)

 6.                 K                    -  
                                                      ,  1/273,16 
                                                                    
                                                                  (XIII , 1967 ,  4)

 7.                         cd                  -     
                                                                 ,  
                                                                                          12
                                                                   540·10   ,
                                                                      
                                                                   1/683  
                                                                  (XVI , 1979 ,  3)
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

 

 

 

 

N 2

,

 

()

 

---------------------------T---------------------------------------------------------------------
       ¦                           
                           +------------------T------------------------T-------------------------
                           ¦      ¦             ¦  
                           ¦                  +--------------T---------+   
                           ¦                  ¦ ¦  ¦
---------------------------+------------------+--------------+---------+-------------------------
                                                                                  -1
 1.                                rad                     ·   = 1

                                                                                2  -2
 2.                             sr                       ·   = 1

                                                      2           2                 2
 3.                             m                            

                                                      3           3                 3
 4.                               m                            

                                                                                    -1
 5.                             m/s          /             ·

                                                       2           2                -2
 6.                           m/s         /              ·
                             

                                                                                   -1
 7.                                       Hz                         

                                                                                      -2
 8.                                        N                         ··

                                                       3            3                -3
 9.                            kg/m         /             ·
                             

                                                                                -1    -2
 10.                                                          ··

                                                                                2     -2
 11. , ,                          J                        ··
  

                                                                              2     -2  -1
 12.                     J/K         /          ··  ·K

                                                                                2     -3
 13.                                     W                        ··

 14.  ,                       C                          ·
  

                                                                              2     -3  -1
 15.                               V                       ··  ·
 , 
 , 
  ,
  
                                                                              -2   -1  4  2
 16.                        F                        ·  · ·

                                                                              2     -3  -2
 17.                                                    ··  ·
 

                                                                              -2   -1  3  2
 18.                              S                       ·  · ·
 

                                                                              2     -2  -1
 19.                              Wb                     ··  ·
 ,  
                                                                                   -2  -1
 20.                         T                       ·  ·
 ,  

                                                                              2     -2  -2
 21. ,                             H                      ··  ·
  

 22.                  °C          °                

 23.                               lm                        ·

                                                                                -2
 24.                                 lx                        ··

                                                                                   -1
 25.                      Bq                         
  
 ( )
                                                                                  2  -2
 26.                              Gy                         ·
  ,
 

                                                                                  2  -2
 27.                          Sv                         ·
  ,
  
  

                                                                                      -1
 28.                                 kat                      ·
 
                                                                                2     -2
 29.              -             N·m          ·            ··

                                                                                    -3  -1
 30.                        V/m          /          ··  ·
  

                                                                                  -1
 31.                        A/m          /               ·
  

                                                                              -3   -1  3  2
 32.               S/m         /           ·  · ·
 
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

. , , . , .

, 1. .

, 1, , , 1.

 

 

 

 

 

N 3

,

 

 

--------------------T---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
        ¦                                    
            +----------------T--------------------------T------------------T------------------------
                    ¦    ¦               ¦      ¦   
                    ¦                +-------------T------------+        ¦    ( )
                    ¦                ¦¦     ¦                  ¦
--------------------+----------------+-------------+------------+------------------+------------------------
                                                                          3
 1.                               t                        1·10               

                                                                             -27
                              u          ...    1,6605402·10          
                                                             ()

                                                                         -4
                                       -                     2·10           
                                                                                            

 2.                             min                       60                

                                         h                         3600 

                                       d                      86400 

                                                                         -3  3
 3. ,                              l                       1·10                 
 

 4.                        °            °         (/180)  =          
                                                                                -2
                                                                  1,745329...·10
                                                                        

                                      '            '        (/10800)  =
                                                                                -4
                                                                  2,908882...·10
                                                                        

                                     "            "       (/648000)  =
                                                                                -6
                                                                  4,848137...·10
                                                                        

                         ()         gon                 (/200)  =          
                                                                               -2
                                                                  1,57080...·10
                                                                        

                                                                             11
 5.                    ua           ..       1,49598·10            
                                                           ()

                                                                            15
                                ly          .      9,4607·10   
                                                                  ()

                                                                             16
                                     pc                     3,0857·10   
                                                                  ()
                                            °            °              -10
                                    A            A            10               , 

                               n mile                   1852           
                                                                                           

                                        ft                      0,3048         

                                      inch                    0,0254           

                                                                          4  2
 6.                           ha                       1·10              
                                                                                           

                                                                          2  2
                                          a                        1·10  

                                                                             -3
 7.                 -         gf                    9,80665·10        (
                                                                                          2016 )
                      -       kgf                    9,80665 

                        -         tf                      9806,65 

                                                                          5
 8.                             bar                     1·10            

                                               2             2
                      -     kgf/cm        /        98066,5             
                                                                                        (
                                                                                2016 )
                        

                                mm H O       ..      9,80665        (
                               2                                            2016 )

                             m H O         ..      9806,65        (
                                      2                                             2016 )
                                                                             4
                                   -                    9,80665·10       (
                                                                               2016 )

                                 mm Hg        ..     133,3224             ,
                                                                           ,
                                                                                      

                                                                          -1
 9.                   -                      1·                  

                                                                        -6
 10.                           tex                  1·10   /           
                                                                               

 11.                           kn                      0,514 /          
                                                                  ()

                                                                             2
 12.                           Gal                    0,01 /             

                                                                          -1
 13.                         r/s          /           1               ,
                                                                         

                                                                        -1
                             r/min        /     1/60    = 0,016
                                                                           -1
                                                                         
                                                                  ()

                                                                            -19
 14.           -       eV                   1,60218·10              
                                                                  ()

                                                                           6
                       -       kW·h         ·         3,6·10           

 15.             -         V·A          ·              -              
 

 16.                          var                        -              
 

                                                                           3
 17.       -          A·h          ·          3,6·10           
 , 
 

 18.                          bit                        -              
                                                                             , 
                                    B (byte)                     -

 19.                   bit/s        /             -              
                                                                     , 
                          B/s (byte/s)     /            -

                                                                           -4
 20.                   R                   2,57976·10   /      ,
                                                     ()         
 
 (
  -
  
 
 )

 21.                       rem                     0,01             ,
                                                                          
 ,
  
 
 )

 22.                         rad                    0,01 /          ,
                                                                                       

 23.                       R/s          /              -               ,
                                                                  
                                                                           10
 24.                         Ci                      3,7·10            ,
                                                                               

                                                                       -4  2
 25.                    St                      10    /          
 

 26.                      cal                    4,1868           
 ,            ()
 
                           cal                    4,1840           
                               th                ()

                                    cal                    4,1855           
                       15-           15           15     ()

 27.                  cal/s        /         4,1868           
 ( )     

                              kcal/h        /         1,163 
                           
                                                                            6
                              Gcal/h        /       1,163·10  
                           
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

: 1. , ;

2. ( , ), , , , , , , , , , .

3. , , , , , , , , .

4. "" ( 1 "") L.

5. "", "", "" .

    6.         "" (1
  =  8 )     "", "", "",
                                   10     20      30
   "2  ", "2  "  "2  " (1  = 1024 ,
1    =  1024  , 1  = 1024 ).    
  .       
      "K"  "M"  "G",    
       60027-2 (KB, MB,
GB, Kbyte, Mbyte, Gbyte).

7. . .

 

 

 

 

 

N 4

,

 

 

------------------------------T-------------------------------------------------------------------
          ¦                          
                              +-------------T------------------------T----------------------------
                              ¦ ¦             ¦         
                              ¦             +--------------T---------+
                              ¦             ¦ ¦  ¦
------------------------------+-------------+--------------+---------+----------------------------
 1.  :                 1            1                  1
 ;  ;                                                      -2
  ;                   %            %               1·10
 ;                                                           -3
                                1·10
 ;                                         -1                 -6
 ;               ppm                        1·10
  ;          
    ..

 2.  :                   B                 1  = lg(P /P )  P  =
   ;                                                    2  1       2
 ,   ..                                          10P
                                                                         1
                                                                      1  = 2 lg (F /F  
                                                                                   2  1
                                                                              ------
                                                                      F  =   / 10 F ,
                                                                       2   \/      1
                                                                       P , P  - 
                                                                           1   2
                                                                       , 
                                                                      , ,
                                                                         ..;
                                                                      F , F  -  
                                                                       1   2
                                                                      ,  ,
                                                                       , 
                                                                        ..

                                            dB                          0,1 

 3.   -                 phon             1   
                                                       , 
                                                                        
                                                                          
                                                                        
                                                                       1000   1 

 4.   -               -               1   log  (f /f )
                                                                       2   2  1
                                                                       f /f  = 2,  f , f  -
                                                                           2  1           1   2
                                                                      

                                             -               1   lg(f /f )
                                                                                         2  1
                                                                       f /f  = 10,  f , f
                                                                           2  1            1   2
                                                                      - 

 5.  :                 Np               1  = ln(F /F ) 
  ,                                                          2  1
   ,                                                F /F  = e = 2,718 ...,
                                            2  1
  ..                                                                F , F  - 
                                                                           1   2
                                                                       , 
                                                                      ,  ,
                                                                         ..,
                                                                      e -  
                                                                      .
                                                                      1  = 0,8686  = 8,686 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

 

 

 

 

N 5

,

 

,

 

------------T----------T----------------------T-----------T-----------T-------------------------
  ¦ ¦  ¦ ¦  ¦  
   ¦          +-------------T--------+  ¦           +-------------T-----------
            ¦          ¦¦ ¦           ¦           ¦¦ 
------------+----------+-------------+--------+-----------+-----------+-------------+-----------
      24                                            -1
    10                   Y                  10                     d           

      21                                            -2
    10                   Z                  10                    c           

      18                                            -3
    10                    E                  10                    m           

      15                                            -6
    10                    P                  10                              

      12                                            -9
    10                    T                  10                     n           

       9                                            -12
     10                   G                  10                     p           

       6                                            -15
     10                   M                  10                    f           

       3                                            -18
     10                   k                  10                     a           

       2                                            -21
     10                  h                  10                    z           

       1                                            -24
     10                  da                 10                    y           
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

. - - "". - .

, , .

, .

2 .

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, , . .